Infectious diseases: Columbian Exchange

Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases: Epidemics During the Age of Sail

Infectious diseases: Public Health and Anti-Immigrant Sentiment

Infectious diseases: Modern Health Threats

The early history of European and African settlement in the Western Hemisphere provides a depressingly long list of epidemics and pandemics. Many of these occurred on a large geographical scale, sparked by the contact of Native American communities with immigrant men and women who carried deadly pathogens to which the carriers themselves were immune or highly resistant. In turn, these intruders were susceptible to Native American diseases, one example of which may have been syphilis. It seems that some infected Spanish explorers contracted that sexually transmitted disease (STD) and spread it after their return to Europe. For their part, Native Americans died by the thousands of imported Old World diseases such as measles, mumps, smallpox, typhus, and influenza. This biological interaction is sometimes referred to as part of the “Columbian Exchange,” taking its name from the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus.

Although early immigrants from Europe and Africa tended to share resistance to a wide range of pathogens, later generations, long removed from their homelands and isolated fromcertain diseases in the New World, tended to lose their natural defenses to the OldWorld diseases. When new immigrants arrived from the Old World, even from the same cities and regions as the ancestors of secondor third-generation colonists or slaves, their reinfusion of disease-causing pathogens could and often did trigger outbreaks—even epidemics— among the settled immigrants populations. Perhaps ironically, however, this was least likely to occur in large cities such as New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, in which steady streams of new immigrants kept levels of exposure and resistance relatively high among the urban populations.

Some imported diseases, such as mosquitoborne malaria and yellow fever, were initially and inadvertently inserted into humid coastal environments in the NewWorld that were well suited to the insects by Spanish slavers and their human cargoes. While the African immigrant populations were generally resistant to the potentially deadly diseases, both Native Americans and Europeans proved to be highly susceptible. The insects became carriers when they sucked the blood of human carriers. In regions where human carriers diminished in number, as along the northern Atlantic coastline (thanks in part to the practice of quarantine), the incidence of the disease dropped off. Fresh arrivals of African or Caribbean slaves along the southern U.S. coasts, however, helped maintain high incidence levels. Even beforeWalter Reed and other researchers untangled the true nature of yellow fever during the early twentieth century, Americans sought strict limitations on immigrants and even trade from Cuba and other island sources of the disease whose carriers set off recurrent outbreaks.

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jonas kita0 answers 2 July 2016 06:43

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sicely Gipson0 answers 5 August 2016 02:11

Hello, I am Sicely Gipson and i was 5 years herpes (HSV) positive and do have 8 to 10 outbreak per year. I use generic Zovirax cream during outbreaks which helps some. I am so tired of these outbreaks and i came in conclusion of going into the internet to search for help, Recently I read about a herbal doctor named Okoh that he can help to cure my herpes virus and i write to him through his email: drokohspelhome@gmail.com, but I am afraid this may not work but i had to double my faith. this herbal doctor wrote back to me and of a truth after reading his reply, he assured me that i'm going to also be a living witness that there is cure for herpes virus and i was full of hope again, he told me what to do and how to go about it, i went according to the instruction given to me by the doctor okoh and just has what he told he and the date given to me by him i went back to my doctor and 4 other doctors for confirmation and they all confirm that i'm free and there is no virus in me, i was very happy and i say to you if you or anyone around you is infected with herpes or other virus such as HERPES (HSV 1&2), CANCER, GONORRHEA, HIV/AIDS, SYPHILIS or any disease, be kind to yourself by contacting doctor okoh for a cure with telephone call: +2348153089532, send what app message to his number: +2348153089532 or send e-mail message to him directly: drokohspelhome@gmail.com

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lizzy ryan0 answers 25 September 2016 04:08

I want to thank Dr Azuka for the Herbal HIV medicine he gave to me and my daughter, i was suffering from HIV when i gave birth to my daughter and that was how my daughter got the sickness indirect from me, but to God be the glory that i am heal with the herbal medicine that Dr Azuka gave to me when i emailed him. i want to use this medium to tell everyone that the solution to our sickness has come,so i will like you to contact this great healer on his email address, dr.azukasolutionhome@gmail.com with him all your pains will be gone,i am really happy today that i and my daughter are cured of HIV, we are now Negative after the use of his Herb medicine, my specialist doctor confirm it. once more i say a big thank to you Dr Azuka for healing hands upon my life and my daughter, i say may God continue to bless you abundantly and give you more power to keep helping those that needs your help. email him now he is waiting to receive you. {dr.azukasolutionhome@gmail.com} or What's App +2348132777335

DR AZUKA CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

1. HIV/AIDS
2. HERPES
3. CANCER
4. ALS

rachael0 answers 1 November 2016 23:57

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giftfable0 answers 2 November 2016 23:46

I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HIV patient in the world i never believed that there could be any complete cure for HIV or any cure for HIV,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how DR Bello prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too. and you can,t believe that in just 7 days i started using his herbal medicine. and all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the antiretroviral therapy which my medical doctor gave to me. i went to the hospital to do a checkup, the result came out and i tested HIV NEGATIVE. I'm sharing this with you, because i believe there's someone out here who also desire to have this cure. feel free and contact Dr Bello, delay in treatment leads to death. contact him through his WHATS-APP NUMBER +2348147271779, or contact him via email: bellospelltemple@gmail.com,Good luck

loveth mable0 answers 12 November 2016 16:27

I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how DR Aba prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email:dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +2348107155060

Gakuba0 answers 16 November 2016 21:49

My wife is back!!! my name is Gakuba Rauzan. I had a problem with my wife six months ago,which lead to us apart. When she broke up with me,i was no longer myself,I felt so empty inside. Until a friend of mine told me about a spell caster that helped in same problem too, that she found on a television program. i emailed the spell caster and I told him my problem and I did what he asked me to briefly make. To cut the long story short,before i knew what was happening,not up to 48 hours,my wife gave me a call and she come back to me and told me she was sorry about what has happened, she now tell me every day she love and miss me. I'm so grateful to this spell caster Dr. Ogudugu and i will not stop publishing his name on the internet just for the good work he has been doing. If you need his help, you can email him at(greatogudugu@gmail.com)and he will also help you. website: www.greatdrogudugusolutiontemple.webs.com

joelgrace0 answers 17 November 2016 19:30

i was suffering from HIV/AIDS disease for the past 6 years and ever since i have been passing through serious agony in my life,i contact this infection through my boyfriend and i have done series of tests and taking drugs to be cure but unfortunate for me i still carry this deadly infection inside of me,i will love to say i was so lucky to have came across DR BELLO several testimony online people testifying series of how they were totally cure of HIV/AIDS through his herbal medicine on his email: bellospelltemple@gmail.com i contacted him on email and explain my situation to him and he accepted to help me cure my HIV/AIDS disease,i followed his instruction and indeed he prepare a herbal medicine for me and after i receive the herbal medicine he told me how to apply the herbal medicine and after 1 weeks of usage i did the test again and i was confirmed negative. you can contact him on bellospelltemple@gmail.com or call, whatsApp his Mobil number +2348147271779

I am so so happy today, I have been suffering from HIV for the past 3years now,i have spent a lot getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy i have tried all. means in life to become HIV negative but there was no answer until i decided to try herbal solution and i found Great dr bello on an online research, i took a lot of Faith in him because I was so in need of anything that can cure my HIV and make it negative, so i contacted him and after his powerful intervention I’m so glad that i am now HIV.Negative, i am very very happy thank you. Great dr bello for helping cure my HIV negatives and restoring me back to my normal life again and how you help me to come back newly again without any form of. crisis i promise to tell your name and your cure, also your good. deeds to the whole world. Kindly contact him for cure regarding on HIV, Herpes, Cancer and other disease. Email bellospelltemple@gmail.com. call or whtsApp him +23408147271779.

loveth mable0 answers 20 November 2016 11:10

I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how DR Aba prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email:dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +2348107155060

joelgrace0 answers 22 November 2016 14:01

i was suffering from HIV/AIDS disease for the past 6 years and ever since i have been passing through serious agony in my life,i contact this infection through my boyfriend and i have done series of tests and taking drugs to be cure but unfortunate for me i still carry this deadly infection inside of me,i will love to say i was so lucky to have came across DR BELLO several testimony online people testifying series of how they were totally cure of HIV/AIDS through his herbal medicine on his email: bellospelltemple@gmail.com i contacted him on email and explain my situation to him and he accepted to help me cure my HIV/AIDS disease,i followed his instruction and indeed he prepare a herbal medicine for me and after i receive the herbal medicine he told me how to apply the herbal medicine and after 1 weeks of usage i did the test again and i was confirmed negative. you can contact him on bellospelltemple@gmail.com or call, whatsApp his Mobil number +2348147271779

glorymailk0 answers 22 November 2016 15:47

I'm glory mailk , I contracted HIV in 2014, I was told by my doctor that there's no possible cure for HIV. I started taking my ARV's, My CD4 was 77 and viral load was 112,450. I saw a email of Dr. bello also I saw a lot of testimonials about him on how he uses herbal medicine to cure HIV. I contacted him and told him my problems, He sent me the herbal medicine and I took it for 7 days after then I went for check-up and I was cured. The medicine has NO SIDE EFFECT, there's no special diet when taking the medicine. He also cure ALS, HEPATITIS B, CANCER, HERPES, DIABETES and lots more.You can reach him on bellospelltemple@gmail.com. or call/Whatsapp +2348147271779

Jasmine Jennifer0 answers 22 November 2016 21:00

I have heard of him before, but after watching his documentary “healing spell” I was turned on to the full story



about Dr uwa. He is a man who has the Cure for AIDS,Cancer, Sickle Cell, Herpes,warts,HPV,ALS Diabetes and every kind of



illness, through a whole foods vegetarian diet and natural herbs, what he calls Electric Foods. He went to herbal school college,



and has thousands of testimonials of healing people with Herpes, HIV AIDS, and HPV several other



illnesses. Lisa “Left Eye” Lopes of TLC was cured of Herpes by him and she was so moved by his knowledge that she went on



to spread the word about him in every way she could. She also opened a Cultural/Healing Center for Children in USA



before she passed away tragically. This all inspired me that i had to contact Dr uwa, because i was having Herpes



which could not be cure but was only managed, when i contacted Dr. uwa, he sent me some herbs which i took, and now i can tell you, i have be totally cured of Herpes, My Name is Jasmine, I am from the South Carolina, Please if you have any form



of illness especially STD,Infertility,HIV etc. you can contact him immediately through his Email Address







Name: Jasmine Jennifer



Email: druwaherbalcenter@gmail.com



PHONE/WHATS APP : +2348063930531

this is real take it serious,my name is Philip Brenda who will believe that herbs can cure seven years HIV in my body, i never believe that this will work i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, what i was waiting for is death because i was broke, one day i hard about this great man who is well know of HIV and cancer cure, i decided to email him, unknowingly to me that this will be the end of the HIV aids in my body, he prepare the herbal medicine for me, and give me instruction on how to take it, at the end of 2 weeks, he told me to go to the hospital for a check up, and i went, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me negative, i thought it was a joke, i went to another hospital was also negative, then i took my friend who was also HIV positive to Dr Uwa, after the treatment she was also confirm negative . He also have the herb to cure cancer please i want every one with this virus to be free, that is why am dropping his email address,druwaherbalcenter@gmail.com do email him he is a great man. the government is also interested in this Dr uwa, thank you for saving my life, and I promise I will always testify for your good work. call and whatsapp him on +2348063930531

DOCTOR UWA CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

1. HIV/AIDS
2. HERPES
3. CANCER
4. ALS
5. Hepatitis B
6. Diabetes

gracejoyce0 answers 24 November 2016 06:13

I am so so happy today, I have been suffering from HIV for the past 3years now,i have spent a lot getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy i have tried all. means in life to become HIV negative but there was no answer until i decided to try herbal solution and i found Great dr bello on an online research, i took a lot of Faith in him because I was so in need of anything that can cure my HIV and make it negative, so i contacted him and after his powerful intervention I’m so glad that i am now HIV.Negative, i am very very happy thank you. Great dr bello for helping cure my HIV negatives and restoring me back to my normal life again and how you help me to come back newly again without any form of. crisis i promise to tell your name and your cure, also your good. deeds to the whole world. Kindly contact him for cure regarding on HIV, Herpes, Cancer and other disease. Email bellospelltemple@gmail.com. call or whtsApp him +23408147271779.

gracejoyce0 answers 26 November 2016 11:53

I am so so happy today, I have been suffering from HIV for the past 3years now,i have spent a lot getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy i have tried all. means in life to become HIV negative but there was no answer until i decided to try herbal solution and i found Great dr bello on an online research, i took a lot of Faith in him because I was so in need of anything that can cure my HIV and make it negative, so i contacted him and after his powerful intervention I’m so glad that i am now HIV.Negative, i am very very happy thank you. Great dr bello for helping cure my HIV negatives and restoring me back to my normal life again and how you help me to come back newly again without any form of. crisis i promise to tell your name and your cure, also your good. deeds to the whole world. Kindly contact him for cure regarding on HIV, Herpes, Cancer and other disease. Email bellospelltemple@gmail.com. call or whtsApp him +2348147271779.

David0 answers 29 November 2016 20:45

About 6 months ago I was searching for some kind of relief/cure? for genital herpes for my husband and myself. I have been suffering from herpes outbreaks for 18 years and gave my husband the gift that keeps on giving last year and he has been miserable with almost non stop outbreaks:( It sure has taken its toll on our sex life. I stumbled across surfing the net and immediately bought the herbs the product. We both started with morning and night applications, starting with 1 drop and working our way up to 15 drops, each day adding another drop. after 15 days of applying the drops we are now completely healed for the embarrassing disease and thanks to who made this possible by Dr Osaro, you can contact him on this information if you need help.
Name: Dr. Osaro Enoma
Email: natureroot.herbs@gmail.com
Phone and whatsapp: +2349029519146.
osaroherbalmedicine.webs.com

richand0 answers 1 December 2016 18:17

Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I wll live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HERPE) for the past 3 years now; I had spent a lot of money going from one places to another, from churches to churches, hospitals have been my home every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this blessed day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR IMONITIE heped someone in curing his HERPE disease, quickly I copied his email which is MIRACULOUSSOLUTIONHOME@yahoo.com just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, He is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just email him for help ( .MIRACULOUSSOLUTIONHOME@yahoo.com ) you can contact him for help with this number too (+2348058802667).

Dr IMONITIE CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

1. HERPES
2. LASSA FEVER
3. GONORRHEA
4. HIV/AIDS
5. LOW SPERM COUNT
6. MENOPAUSE DISEASE
7. EPILEPSY
8. ASEPSIS
9. CANCER
10. ANXIETY DEPRESSION
11. PREGNANCY PROBLEM
12. SHORT SIGHTEDNESS PROBLEM
13. ALS
14. PTSD
15 ADHD

itua mercy0 answers 13 December 2016 00:05

i was suffering from WARTS disease for the past 6 years ago and ever since i have been passing through serious agony in my life,i contact this infection through my boyfriend and i have done series of tests and taking drugs to be cure but unfortunate for me i still carry this deadly infection inside of me,i will love to say i was so lucky to have came across DR OJOMO several testimony online people testifying series of how they were totally cure of WARTS through his herbal medicine on his email: ojomospellcaster@gmail.com i contacted his email and explain my situation to him and he accepted to help me cure my WARTS disease,i followed his instruction and indeed he prepare a herbal medicine for me and after i receive the herbal medicine he told me how to apply the herbal medicine and after 1 weeks of usage i did the test again and i was confirmed negative. you can contact his Mobil number or whatsapp him on +2348127662208 or you EMAIL: ojomospellcaster@gmail.com

sarah gomez0 answers 15 December 2016 01:22

i am here to give testimony of how i got back my husband, we got married for more than 9 years and have gotten two kids. thing were going well with us and we are always happy. until one day my husband started to behave in a way i could not understand, i was very confused by the way he treat me and the kids. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was mad and also frustrated do not know what to do,i was sick for more than 2 weeks because of the divorce. i love him so much he was everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told my sister and she told me to contact a spell caster, i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing. i just want to try if something will come out of it. i contacted (24hourslovespell@gmail.com ) for the return of my husband to me, they told me that my husband have been taken by another woman, that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want us to divorce. then they told me that they have to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and the kids, they casted the spell and after 1 week my husband called me and he told me that i should forgive him, he started to apologize on phone and said that he still live me that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that he traditional spell hospital casted on him that make him comeback to me today,me and my family are now happy again today. thank you for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. i want you my friends who are passing through all this kind of love problem of getting back their husband, wife , or ex boyfriend and girlfriend to contact 24hourslovespell@gmail.com . call or whatsapp +2347059073543 and you will see that your problem will be solved without any delay.

Billy Bob jr.0 answers 16 December 2016 17:52

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