The political unification of Italy in 1879 did not bring better lives to the majority of Italians, who began to emigrate in large numbers to Brazil, Argentina, and the United States. Life for the new immigrants was difficult in all these countries, but Italians continued to emigrate. Many hoped to accumulate enough money to return to Italy to buy land and lead better lives in their homeland. Most sent remittances to family members in Italy in the meantime. By 1900, about 500,000 Italians were living in the United States, mostly in New York, Pennsylvania, NewJersey, andNewEngland. About 150,000 Italians lived in New York City alone, and Philadelphia and Chicago also had growing Italian communities.